Localization : Eastern Asia
Capitole : Beijing

Administrative cutting :

  • 22 provinces (Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Fujian, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hainan),
  • 5 autonomous areas (Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang)
  • and 4 municipalities under the central authority : Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing
  • 1 special administrative area : Hong Kong

Politics

  • Political power : People’s democracy with a single party (the CCP, Chinese Communist Party). The People’s Republic of China was established in 1949.
  • Executive power : the President of the Republic, State Affairs Council (led by the Prime Minister).
  • Legislature power : People’s National Assembly (PNA), composed of 2985 members elected for five years by indirect vote of provinces, townships, autonomous areas, special administrative areas and the army.
  • Legal power : People’s Supreme Court, People’s Courts and tribunals, Public Security.

Languages :

Mandarin Chinese (or putonghua) is the official tongue of the country, and also the most spoken language in the world (before English and Spanish). It also exists 55 other minorities tongues.
Phonetic transcription system : hanyu pinyin (created in late 50’s).


Large cities :

  • Shanghai : 12.8 millions inhabitants in 2003 is the biggest Chinese city, the first port and the world sixth biggest metropolis.
  • Beijing : 10.8 millions in 2003 is the political capitole of China, the second Chinese biggest city and world eight biggest metropolis.
  • Tianjin : 9.27 millions is the nearest port to Beijing.
  • Wuhan: 5.65 millions
  • Shenyang : 4.88 millions
  • Chongqing: 4.85 millions
  • Guangzhou: 3.89 millions, big sea port
  • Chengdu : 3.4 millions
  • Xi'an : 3.2 millions
  • Changchun: 3.01 millions
  • Nanjing: 2.78 millions
  • Jinan : 2.62 millions

Geography :

  • Total surface : 9 571 300 sqrkm (Third World rank)
  • Maximum length (East to West) : 5 200 kms
  • Width (North to South) : 5 500 kms
  • Land frontiers : 15 000 kms
  • Seaside frontiers : 14 500 kms
  • Neighbourhood : Russia and Mongolia (to the North), North Korea (N-E), Vietnam, Laos, Birmania, India, Bhoutan, Nepal (to the South), Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tadjikistan (to the West), Kirghizistan and Kazakhstan (to the N-W), Taiwan (S-E).
  • Islands : 2 900 including Hainan (33 991 skm).
  • Mountains : Oriental Tianshan, Kunlun, Himalaya, Pamir, Karakorum, Altunshan, Qilianshan, Nanshan.
  • Rivers and lakes : 5000 including Yangtse (Changjiang), Amour (Heilongjiang), Yellow River (Huanghe) and Xijiang
  • Length of fluvial network : 220 00 kms including 95 000 kms of navigable paths.
  • Total water flow : 2 700 billion cubic meters (equivalent to the Europe one).
  • Climates : continental in north, moderate in the east, tropical and subtropical in the south.
  • Population : 1,31 billion inhabitants (21% of world population, first world rank) composed of 61% of rural and 39% the urban ones.
  • Density : 140 inhabitants by skm but concentrated in the large cities and the agricultural plains (43% of the inhabitants live on 18% of the territory).
  • Ethnic population : 92% of Hans and 8% of minorities (55 minorities). The minorities occupy 60% of the Chinese territory.
  • Principal minorities : Ouďgours, Mandchous, Mongols, Koreans, Kazakhs, Huis, Zhuangs, Dongs, Lis, Dais, Yis, Tibetans, Bais, Hanis, Lisus, Miaos, Tujias, Yaos.
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